Application of BIM Tools in Parametric and Generative Design for the Conception of Complex Structures
Luis Quispe, Wilfredo Ulloa
Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Laboratorio de Diseño y Construcción Virtual, Av. Túpac Amaru 210, Rímac 1301, Lima, Perú
The present research applies the Parametric Design (PD) and Generative Design (GD) for the generation of complex structures, through the BIM methodology, being implemented in design phase of a new modern proposal for Pavilion J1 of the National University of Engineering from Perú.
The research aims to: Study the PD and GD considering the interoperability provided by BIM tools, propose procedures that help solve PD and GD problems, understand the benefits of process automation through generative and parametric algorithms.
The conception and design phase of projects are developed in a traditional way using CAD Softwares for drawing plans or BIM Softwares for the design and/or modeling of structures, carrying out manual tasks either for the extraction of measurements, exchange of information or modeling, this implies a lack of efficiency in many processes because despite having modern computational tools, the full potential they offer is not used.
This is reflected in the productivity of the construction sector as it is one of the lowest compared to other sectors such as manufacturing, commerce, agriculture.
Due to this problem, new technologies were studied, such as evolutionary algorithms supported by parametric design for the conception and design of structures.
Subsequently, as a test, this new methodology was applied to various types of structures, testing the parametric behavior and understanding the operation of these new methodologies.
As a result of the previous tests, key procedures were defined to cover parametric and generative problems, developing algorithms in textual code (Python), visual algorithms and applying generative algorithms (NSGA-II); capable of creating structures automatically adapting to the designer’s criteria.
Based on the last stage of the PD and GD procedures, the algorithms for the formulation of the structure were implemented in Block J1, demonstrating the applications and benefits in various tasks such as modeling, loads generation, structural design and software interoperability.
Parametric design is a theme explored several decades ago applied in different professional fields to create complex patterns, geometries that imitate nature or complex figures, whether in art, music, medicine, robotics, architecture and engineering.
While generative design, is a tool has been developing with great force and applies evolutionary approaches imitating natural genetic processes, complements parametric design in the search for optimization of a problem to the point that the design is automated, leaving the creation of solutions to the machines. based on the designer’s criteria.
Being the field of architecture the most relevant in these methodologies assisted from the beginning by CAD tools which have evolved over the years nourishing with greater geometric, computational and visual capabilities. By exploiting computing capabilities, attractive, modern and futuristic designs have been achieved.