Nature-Based Framework for Sustainable Architectural Design – Biomimetic Design and Biophilic Design
Department of Architecture, Delta University for Science and Technology, Gamasa, Egypt
Table 1. Natural methods to conserve resources
Sustainable architectural design is the design of the age. It is based on the solution of environmental, social and economic problems of architectural design for providing resources and improving the quality of life for mankind. Sustainable solutions of architectural design result mainly from the principle of sustainability which is derived from natural systems and what they offer to humans.
The main objective of this paper is to highlight the natural strategies of solving the problems of sustainable architectural design as an integrated approach for the knowledge of the secrets of sustainability. These strategies of sustainable architectural design derived from nature and interacting with it.
Table 2. Natural systems to Resource and Waste performance methods (optimization Methods)
The first strategy is inspired from nature by implementing the Biomimetic design which mimics the performance of nature and provides clean technologies. The second strategy is integrated into nature by using Biophilic design and its role in achieving human well-being and improving their performance.
This research follows the deductive approach that analyzes the design strategies and methods taken from nature to contribute to the development of a comprehensive nature-based framework for sustainable architectural design to benefit the designers, innovators and decision makers that nature is the main source for achieving sustainability in architectural design.
Table 3. Patterns of biophilic design
Sustainable architectural design is a set of rules and principles that are stronger than strict laws. It gives a great conception of the whole-building as an approach to design, construction, maintenance and operations. It is a vast and complex concept. The concept of sustainability reflects the quality of life and allows people to live in a healthy environment while improving social, environmental and economic conditions.
This concept is formed from the idea of sustainability, sustainable development and the framework for sustainable design based on the sustainable triple bottom line principles which are the conservation of resources, cost efficiency and design for the human. Each principle has strategies and methods throughout the life cycle of construction projects.
Table 4. Natural Environmental Protection methods
Since nature is based on the principle of sustainability, the accuracy of the human will never match the beauty, simplicity or directness of nature; where there is nothing missing or is not necessary as it is the optimal design. Thus, the copying or imitation of the phenomena of nature or mechanisms of survival and environmental efficiency in manufacturing processes act as the sustainability concept in the architectural design, which is called the biomimic design.
The human instinctively tends to nature and so do all the other organisms. Therefore, the integration of design with nature is called biophilic design that has physiological benefits focused on human health and well-being and improve their performance. Thus, the application of biophia and biomimicry concepts in design, construction and maintenance of buildings achieves the principles of sustainability in the project.